Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Adam Garry: Information is Changing Learning

Adam Garry, a former elementary teacher who is now Manager of Global Professional Learning at Dell shared a conversation on how Information is Changing Learning: Meeting the Needs of 21st Century Learners. It happened to be at Target Field!
There were folks from South Washington County, Mounds View, Chaska, Duluth, Centenial school districts represented.
The focus was not about Dell, or technology, but more about learning.
He used a tool called Today's Meet for the backchannel, but no one participated.
The first question he posed was "How are you defining 21st Century Learning? " One participant said, "I don't think we are defining it, it's being defined by the students!"
Adam mentioned another conference where a participant said "It feels like we have 19th Century teaching techniques done by 20th Century Teachers for 21st Century Students."
He then showed the Simpsons Cell Phones at School episode it's no longer available for viewing, but there is a great blog post about it here.

Next Question from Garry: Schools have always been about information sharing, yes or no? He's found it's pretty much split 50/50 on that one!

He then talked about the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, focusing on:
  • Information Fluency
  • Communication and Collaboration
  • Problem Solving
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Self-Direction
Content is a key component, but it's often presented as an either/or proposition.
Garry argued that the state standards are the bare minimum, and that the 21st Century skills round out and prepare students to the post-secondary world.

We then broke out into a discussion of which of the skills is most important...
As we went around the room and some said problem solving, some said communication, our table said information fluency with a nod to creativity.
Ultimately: They're all important!

Garry mentioned a study on creativity that found much of it was related to problem solving. When students had time to "walk away from the problem", they usually came up with the right answer.
He believes that right now, we're just scratching the surface on doing all of these things.
He then shared the TPACK model.
"When you walk in a classroom, you might not see students using technology, but you should at least see artifacts of them using it!"
Garry then showed us a video on Job Loss in the US over the last 6 years. What impact does this have on education? The jobs lost are not the same jobs that are coming back. He mentioned "A Whole New Mind" and Pink's work on this.

Information is changing learning. Use, Create, Remix....
He mentioned a TED talk that said students today don't view information as static.
He then showed us "" People can imagine movies in other genres and create trailers for them. What if Sleepless in Seattle were a horror film?!

The writing process for a mashup like this, revising, and knowing the genre is very complex, and may provide!

Growing up in the Digital Age data from "Speak Up".
Adam shared about his son's school, and how his son is connected but his school is not.
He is very self-directed at home, more compliance based at school.
What about the kids who don't have access? By 3rd grade, students have been indoctrinated into "doing school."

"The connected generation typically disconnects when they enter the classroom."
At no other time in history do we have access to information that is exponentially expanding. The barriers to access that information is limited. The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with 32 million books. In 2002, the information produced would have filled 37,000 Library of Congresses! .01% was on paper! What will it be today?

Every 1 in 200 page views on the Internet a day are on Wikipedia! Whoever told us that when you find something in a book encyclopedia that you need to check at least 3 other sources? "Publish then Filter"-Clay Shirky

The number one reason people contribute to the Web is because they enjoy it!
Looking at information in different ways can provide deeper meaning. Kids need to understand that they can be manipulated by images:

How do learning environments change as information gets larger, grows faster, and becomes more complex? Issues with teachers comfort level and classroom management, pedagogy, and policy need to be addressed when we look at using cell phones or allowing students to bring their own technology into the mix.

Too often, when we introduce new technology with teachers, we give them the tool, but don't show them how to move beyond automating.
If 21st century skills are not valued by colleagues, administration, parents, how likely are people going to adopt them?

Garry argued that "Web 2.0 is Web 1.0 for today's learners!" They have always been able to contribute!

He then talked about Google Wave, based on HTML5. He shared how Wave technology can update blogs, translate conversations within

Kids don't want to use e-mail, and he sees the need for future Learning spaces to incorporate HTML5 and Wave technology.

He then discussed a few products that are changing the game:
What if teachers had access to show students why they are going through the steps to solve the problem!
Wolfram Alpha will be built into Bing and into Office 2010 w/3D.

Helping people organize the digital content on RSS readers w/ Pageflakes, Netvibes or iGoogle.
What if today, you could take a curriculum map, drag and drop activities to meet the standards based on aggregators and shared across the school to individualize instruction.
3 weeks before starting a lesson, teachers would receive resources on that topic.
Brainhoney-Drive content to teachers!

We need the organizational tools to help teachers define the content.

Dell's "Intelligent" classroom slide from the past now "Connected" classroom. Now they look at using the tools to build equity. Garry: "You can't be "student centered" with a device bolted to the front of the room!"

Great presentation by Adam, but I'll skip the sales pitch, except to say that I liked the focus on learning as opposed to focusing on the tools from the vendor!

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

We Have Met the Enemy and He is PowerPoint! A Reflection

Today, the New York Times ran an interesting article regarding the use of PowerPoint in the military, We Have Met the Enemy and He is PowerPoint. It was a fairly damning critique of an organization that gets most of its information or lack of information through PowerPoint slides.
Here are a few quotes from the article:
“PowerPoint makes us stupid" - Gen. James N. Matti

“It’s dangerous because it can create the illusion of understanding and the illusion of control...Some problems in the world are not bullet-izable.” -Gen. H.R. McMaster

And the following comment that I think has a great impact for us as educators:
"Commanders say that behind all the PowerPoint jokes are serious concerns that the program stifles discussion, critical thinking and thoughtful decision-making."
And this...
"Commanders say that the slides impart less information than a five-page paper can hold, and that they relieve the briefer of the need to polish writing to convey an analytic, persuasive point."

A former colleague of mine, Andy Charier had the following comment via Twitter:
"What I liked about the article was the impact it has on thought."
He also mentioned "add to that, PP creates about 10 bad speaking habits too; we teach how to create a PP but not how to effectively use them" and "it risks squeezing out the provider of process—,the rhetorician, the storyteller, the poet, the person"

All of this reminded me of an article I read over 10 years ago, called Scoring PowerPoints from Jamie McKenzie, who consulted with Edina High School Staff a few years back. McKenzie uses the term PowerPointlessness in the article, to describe how often presenters get hung up on the bells and whistles and not focusing on the content:
Powerpointing can become a goal in itself - an unfortunate example of technology being done for technology's own sake. In the best case, the presentation enhances and communicates a larger and deeper body of work and thought.
McKenzie argues that PowerPoint can by it's nature move us toward generalization of ideas and that the slides themselves can splinter the topics we are attempting to explain. He urges presenters to:
  • Emphasize Ideas and Logic while Maintaining Depth and Complexity
  • Design Artfully and minimize distractions
  • Deliver dramatically while avoiding reading bullet points aloud (I DO realize the irony of bulleting this!)
Teaching in a district with a projector in most classrooms, there may be a natural tendency to use PowerPoint as a tool to convey information. But I think this article gives us an opportunity to reflect on how we use that tool in our instruction, and explore how we might convey our course content more effectively.
So should we all throw our PowerPoint's away?
No, but perhaps we should pay attention to what Charrier calls, "the Provider of Process."
I've put together some presentation resources here to consider, including alternatives to PowerPoint.
I'll conclude with this presentation example by one of my "heroes", Dean Shareski, who recently won an International Society of Technology in Education Leadership Award. Perhaps the U.S. military would benefit from this Canadian's ideas, or at least his presentation strategies!

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

TubeChop: Clip YouTube Videos for Your Classroom

How many of you have found a Youtube video you wanted to use with your students, but only wanted the 30 seconds somewhere in the middle to drive home your point?
Here is video of Chris Lehmann, principal at Science Leadership Academy in Philadelphia, presenting at the TEDxNYED conference on March 6, 2010.
I used a Web 2.0 tool called "TubeChop" to slice off the first minute of the video. (It's such a good talk, I'd recommend it for the content! As a matter of fact, a great PD activity would be to watch one of these great talks a day!)

TubeChop allows you to enter the URL of the video, and then simply slide the bars to select the beginning and end of the video and click Chop! You then have the option of selecting the URL of the clip or the embed code as I did here. Unfortunately, Zamzar did not recognize the URL for download purposes.

Thursday, April 8, 2010

Iowa 1:1 Institute: Implementation Crisis

Why 1:1 Programs Are Not Living Up to Their Potential

The final session I attended at the Iowa 1:1 Institute was facilitated by Dr. Michael Gielniak, Program Director for the One-To-One Institute

He gave an Overview of Key Success Factors

Systems approach to change pedagogy. The One-to-One Institute started as the Freedom to Learn Program in Michigan

Of the 200 districts that started only 25 still around, and only 23 doing 1:1 well.

"We learn as much from the failures as well as successes."

A rural district in Michigan started an Arts and Sciences magnet academy in a student centered environment. Students from districts around the area can participate.

2 days a week, just in time direct instruction, the rest of the time is free for students to work on research projects. The program was expanded to the middle school level through a federal grant.

The technology is ubiquitous, but not obvious. Use it only when they need it. Laptops, desktops, and design labs.

See video on their Web site. Very impressive!

Unfortunately, the principal in their district is about to retire, the federal grant is about to end, the superintendent does not understand the concept, the Tech Director was never part of the discussion, and they had low math scores at 7th grade last year. So what do you think is going to happen…..

Due to the low test score, they’ve gone back to a structured, traditional approach for next year. This is a failed program!

Technology is an important tool, but if only used in traditional ways, transformation will not take place.

What does an effective pedagogical model look like?

Just putting a IWB and giving laptops, everything is still Web 1.0…

In instructional approach 2,

Teacher is facilitator, students in groups, Just in Time direct instruction

Tech enables self-direction

Classroom environment is flexible

Students engaged in a variety of activities.


What beliefs do students, teachers, admin, parents in our community have about learning and teaching?

Who holds the power to make decisions about learning and teaching in your school and classroom?

Instructional Approach 3:

Modular-Creative Learning Systems

Second Life! What Chemicals can kids work with in a virtual environment without hurting themselves!

Teacher as Advisor

True mobile learning-Classroom not necessary

Students in control of what they learn, how they learn, when they learn and where they learn

Here are the keys to success as outlined by Dr. Gielniak:


  • Well designed plan for implementation and sustainability
  • Participants: Principals, Teachers, Tech Coordinators, Curriculum Directors, parents, students community members
  • Vision, mission, goals, milestones, resources, roles, responsibilities, monitoring, evaluation
  • Develop a shared vision!


  • Superintendent, tech director and principal
  • Ongoing PD for leading school reform (2nd Order Change-Change the Belief System)
  • Scheduled Team Meetings
  • Observations
  • Communications
  • Leading Second Order Change in Schools
  • Digitial Funding Integration-If the funding stream is not part of the operating budget it will not be sustainable. Half of the failures came from this. Eliminating copy machine costs and classroom sets of textbooks rather than 1 for each kid.
Tech Prep and Support
  • A solid technology infrastructure and maintenance/service plan
  • Connectivity and Access Points
  • Support Policies and procedures
  • Charging and Storing
  • Onsite presence
  • Developing ability of teachers and students to troubleshoot-Gen Y

Professional Learning and Development

  • Regularly scheduled PD for admin, teachers, and tech personnel
  • Coaching/Mentoring model
  • Changing classroom culture
  • Focus on curricular integration
  • Dedicated Time and Resources
  • Every couple of weeks, not just the 4 times a year!
Asking people to change what they believe is very hard! (2nd Order Change.)


  • Sharing information with Key Audiences
  • Internal-Teachers, Librarians, Students, Custodial, Bus Drivers, Tech Support, Curriculum Director, Board Members, Support Staff
  • External-Parents/Guardians, Local Media, Legislators, Businesses


  • School Board Assurance
  • One size fits all doesn’t always work
  • Need flexibility


  • Demonstration Sites
  • Lead Teachers
  • Supercoaches
  • Regional support
  • Research other “Lessons Learned”
  • Vendor Partners
  • Other districts

Expectation Management

  • It takes 3-5 years for teachers to change classroom practice!
  • Student achievement will not increase as a result of 1:1

Assessment and Evaluation

  • External Ongoing Objective evaluation
  • Monitoring of benchmarks

Change of this magnitude takes:

  • Time
  • Patience
  • Hard Work
  • Collaboration
  • Understanding-Being Mindful that this is 2nd Order Change!
  • Consistent and Open Communication AND…
Contract with the One to One Institute!

Iowa 1:1 Institute: Management of Laptop Initiatives and School Networks

In this session, Jim Casey, CAM High School and Middle School Network Manager presented information about his district's experience with 1:1 over the last 2 years.

He is a strong advocate for 1:1, especially Apple! He started by sharing a little about himself. He went to college to be a teacher and found out he couldn’t do that, but ended up in IT and his own business. Now he runs the IT at CAM. Jim was very self-depricating, but in fact he is a great educator! It was evident in his session that he really understands the importance of creating a system that allows students enough freedom to fail, and learn from those failures in a positive way.

They are in the 2nd year of 1:1 with 6-8 and 9-12 buildings.

He feels that 1:1 has leveled out the playing field in smaller districts. Everyone is on the same device. Surprised him that not only did it help the students but it also helped the teachers. All in the same boat.

When planning, the last thing you want to do is roll something out that doesn’t work! (Ain’t that the truth!)

1) Wireless needs to be ready! They use Apple base stations for theirs. Make sure budget for the network is built in, not just the laptop!

2) Gigabit switches to all base stations. This has made the day to day bandwidth much less of a problem.

3) They run 2 GB of RAM, and have more robust machines for the Project Lead the Way students

4) Don’t underestimate the server! Portable home directories with control, but not too much! Workgroup manager allows for great control over what can be downloaded.

5) It’s not a facist regime! I could tie them down, but the kids need to be able to learn!

6) Can’t back up everything! Movies, etc.. need to be saved on the Hard drive.

7) Apple was very supportive with on-site help, AppleCare

120 at Middle school, 170 at the high school.

Surprised that some of the damage has come from the teachers!

Factor in loaners. They underestimated the number needed. They only got 3 per hundred and realized they were too few right away!

Get good cases. Make sure kids are using the cases when the computer is transported.

He was surprised that kids felt entitled right away that the laptop was theirs, until it broke, then it was yours and it needed fixing right away!!

Initial reaction was take the device away. Instead of taking the laptop away, take away the fun stuff! (Workgroup manager on the server. Sets up a restricted group that kids get moved to with only Office or the applications you want and no browser access.)

Get the configuration you want, not the configuration you settle for… Get the device configured to last the 3 years you will have them.

Roll out. (Apple handled it for their district) Some parents “Awesome!” some “You just brought the devil into my house!”

3 20 minute work groups for parents Care and Feeding, Acceptable Use, and Internet Safety. This is similar to the roll out we did with our parents.

Remind the parents that they are the parents! If they don’t want the laptop in the kids bedroom, don’t let them!

Good tips, from a "Techy" who really "Gets IT!"

Wednesday, April 7, 2010

Iowa 1:1 Institute: The Un-Session Conversation

During session 3 at the Iowa 1:1 Institute I decided to move from presentation to conversation mode.

I joined Dr. Scott McLeod, Dr. John Nash, Dr. Jeanette Westfall, Dr. Michael Gielniak and a few other educators to share our experiences both positive and negative with 1:1 learning.


I was curious as to how all of the districts represented here today in Des Moines could afford to be moving to 1:1 learning. How were they sustaining it? It turns out, Iowa has a 1 cent sales tax for education that can be used for capital and technology. If a district has all of their buildings in good working order, they can focus those dollars on technology.This is how they are funding all of the 1:1 initiatives on display here in Des Moines

I shared our struggles with how we might expand or even sustain our 1:1 initiative. McLeod mentiond that a Means test model could work, where the district provides laptops to those that can’t afford them. He also mentioned a model being used by the Lemon Grove, California School District, where they provide students with a thin client device. They also are the main ISP provider for the community, with Wireless access points from each school. The rationale was that the students needed access to learn, so they provided it for the community. This presentation shares more about this initiative.

High School

Dr. Jeanette Westfall, a principal from Missouri, shared her experience as the educational leader in a building w/ 50% poverty that became a technology magnet. They have been moving towards 1:1 for the last few years under the leadership of Sean Nash, who has been working on PD with staff on constructivist pedagogy.

They are looking at 1:1 but struggling with the evaluation process.

They currently have 500 computers on carts in their building. She mentioned many pitfalls of using carts! (Management, equity in the building, etc.)

They have an open cell phone policy. They can use them in class, the halls, at lunch, but if the teacher doesn’t want them on it, they can be taken away. She said that if she walks in to a classroom and the kids are on their cell phone, she has more of an issue with the teacher than the student! Her school’s policies can be found at Virtual South Side, a Ning site for educators in her building.

She talked about kids walking in with 3G coverage who are circumventing the network filters. Her district attorney advocates for no cell phones. Dr. Mcleod commented “Get an attorney that understands how they can be used effectively!"

Dr. Nash talked about Van Meter Schools wanting their students being more engaged. They used walk through data for evidence of the shift in teaching pedagogy. This might be another method for us to evaluate our program.

McLeod talked about a survey he gave administrators to rate their district on 14 desirable learning characteristics. It turns out these characteristics were found in role playing games that kids are playing 15 hours a week!

Electronic problem solving is much higher with a group of people

I shared a quote from Valley View English teacher, Heidi Degener, who noted during one of our Community of Practice sessions this year that our students have grown up using technology for play, and teachers have mostly used technology for work. We have to teach students how to use the technology for learning/work.

Mcleod noted: "Kids use the computers for learning all the time, not just for what we think they should be learning!"

Gielniak: “Ah, the Texas conversation!”

Nash said Amy Hutchinson at Iowa State focussed her dissertation on use of tech and the gap.

Dayna Boyd also has some good info on this.

She notes:

Just because many of today’s youth are growing up in a society dripping with technology does not mean that they inherently know how to use it. They don’t.

Also in the room was a young math teacher,
Rick Kolbet of Clayton Ridge HS in Guttenberg IA looking at moving to 1:1 this fall. He said, “I want to be a teacher, not a police officer” “ I don’t want the pressure of using it every day!” I remember hearing some of those same comments a year ago as we struggled with policies for our laptops. Steve Dikkers, also from Clayton Ridge commented later that "
Two months ago he was EXTREMELY skeptical about our proposed 1:1 initiative. Now he is one of its biggest proponents."

McLeod suggested the “Moving Forward Wiki” that allows you to connect with educators doing the same thing you’re doing. There’s a community of people out there all over the world, interested in learning with you!

Twitter4Teachers is another way to connect with other teachers who teach in your subject area.

Having a network of people whether face to face or virtual is invaluable to support the challenges of 1:1 learning and instruction!

Iowa 1:1 Institute: Principal and Superintendent discuss their 1:1 Initiative

Superintendent Jeff Dicks and High School Principal Alynn Coppock from Newell-Fonda School District in Iowa presented on their 1:1 program. I was extremely impressed with the fact that these leaders understood and had bought in to the work their district is doing!

They showed their Twitter ID's on the title slide. They use it to connect, network and learn with/from their peers.
They are in the second year of their 1:1 initiative.

There are problems, most small, every day.
In 1996, President Clinton had this to say about technology in education. We're still not close!
  • All teachers in the nation will have the training and support they need to help students learn using computers and the information superhighway. Upgrading teacher training is key to integrating technology into the classroom and to increasing student learning.
  • All teachers and students will have modern multi-media computers in their classrooms. Computers become effective instructional tools only if they are readily accessible by students and teachers.
  • Every classroom will be connected to the information superhighway. Connections to networks, especially the Internet, multiply the power and usefulness of computers as learning tools by putting the best libraries, museums, and other research and cultural resources at our students’ and teachers’ fingertips.
  • Effective software and on-line learning resources will be an integral part of every school’s curriculum. Software and on-line learning resources can increase students’ learning opportunities, but they must be high quality, engaging, and directly related to the school’s curriculum.
They then showed this video :
He then had us go to Wallwisher to post questions during the session! Great tool for 1:1!
They are currently 1:1 9-12, next year, they will be 1:1 5-12.
They focussed on these key elements:
  • Communicating with parents and community members in 21st century themes.
  • The learning environment, policy and classroom management: Handing the kids a computer will not
  • Life and Career Skills-Not just about the content anymore. (Hmmm.. Wonder what the AFT would say!)
  • Learning and Innovation
  • Information Media and Technology Skills
  • All staff here today! 12-13 days of district PD to make it happen! Modified the calendar to do this!
Who's ready to teach with the iPad right now? No one.
We need PD time, but at the same time, teachers need to start figuring this stuff out!

  • TNT night-Kindergardeners demonstrated the itouch. Took 5 minutes for the kid to figure it out!
  • HS student commercial on Redwall! (My son would love that!)
  • They're usiung ClassJump Blogs for digital learning space
  • Student E-mail-How many kids are sending e-mail to the superintendent on a weekend?
Sometimes you need to think outside of the box to creatively implement. For examle, today it's community clean-up day in their district so that teachers could be here at the conference!
Equal access one of the main reasons they went 1:1.

  • Continually Evolving
  • Empowering vs. Restriction How are we teaching students to use their global voice, use as teachable moments rather than just taking away rights.
  • Teachable Moments
  • Managing a Global Voice
Order of Implementation
  • Esperimental Phase
  • Reflection
  • Refinement
  • Repeat revised lesson
When things go wrong, the first response is to revert back to the old ways. It's safe and comfortable. We need to avoid doing that!-J. Dicks

Instructional Practices
  • Less about being "computer literate" more about "information literate"
  • Focus on the learning and less on the technology-are students just learning the same thing in a flashy new way?
  • Reverse mentoring-"managing student brainpower" Find the kids who are experts and have conversations about how they are using it as a learning tool and then sharing with the rest of the class.
  • Becomes a classroom management tool
Essential Skills and Concepts
  • Communication
  • Confidence
  • Critical Thinking
  • Collaboration
  • Organization
  • These skills cannot be assessed with traditional methods of assessment
The Iowa Core Curriculum
  • Enacted Curriculum
  • Essentials and Inquiry based learning
  • Authentic audience
  • Assessment-Student Work
They shared the Background Knowledge: The Global Achievement Gap book review as a way to get staff thinking about this in a new way.

They developed a wiki, Newell-Fonda 2.0 to share thoughts on the book and used it to link their PLC's together. You need time to allow for those activities!
Dicks then discussed the implications of other methods of learning, such as gaming.
The Florida Virtual School created Conspiracy Code-A course in History. Students take the course over 36 weeks, interacting with the teacher at various times.

They are a fairly small district and Dicks said that they are using about 25% of their budget for the 1:1 project. They use a 2-year lease and roll over from Apple.
And then the wireless network crashed at the conference...

I was very impressed by these two educational leaders.

Iowa 1:1 Institute Keynote: Angela Maiers Fluency 3.0

Angela Maiers offered a look at how the Web is changing through her Keynote presentation. She gave a great look at how we've progressed from Web 1.0 Read-Only, to Web 2.0 Read-Write, and now to Web 3.0 Read-Write-Organize!

She started showing Gary Hayes Social Media Count.

How many live there?

Today, it's Not about being on the Web, it's about being OF the Web!

That isn't the Web we were introduced to 15 years ago!

Web 2.0 is transformative technologies supporting human needs. Sharing and connecting. It changes us. However there is so much information out there, it's overwhelming and is causing challenges with keeping up!
By the people, because of the people it needs to change again.
There is evidence of Web 3.0, but it's not here yet. We need to organize and structure the information a little bit better.It seeks to structure information in general and the information that is personally important to them.

The new Web search of the future isn't a time sucking endeavor it currently can be.
The attributes of Web 3.0 will be based on technologies that make people more human, not just linked, but structured. We need patterns, structures and tools to make sense of disconnected ideas and content.
Tagging and bookmarking allows for crowd sourcing the intelligence. Tags are a survival tool for the Web. It takes responsibility for people to do write reviews.
She then looked at her networks and how she is able to pull information with things like Twine, Klout, Twitter.
Twitter is not even close to normal about how we have communicated in the past. Unfortunately, people who shut the shade and don't use it, miss the opportunities to learn, network and connect.
Lists are a huge way of organizing meta-data. It also requires people to get to the point by limiting to 140 characters. A site like Listorious allows you to find the best people on Twitter.

The survival strategies:
Uncovering the hidden curriculum. Learning doesn't stop on page 51.
Here are the key components of Fluency 2.0
Filter-You cannot do this without other people (Clay Shirky-"Not an information overload problem, a filter problem.")
Learn-Must listen well and learn from others. If you act like you know everything, you're kicked out of the club!
Unlearn-Learning is the willingness to unlearn! Toffler-Learn, Relearn, Unlearn. Requires self-awareness. The moment you think you know, you stop asking ? and listening
Engage-Not an option! You can't be a good writer if you're not a good reader and listener! In order to engage, you have to be engaging, honest, trustworthy and generous! Sharing is key!
Network-Communities have been the survival tool for humankind for millennia. She showed TweetReach to see how a single tweet is shared.
Trust-When we shut the world out, we take the very survival mechanisms they need to survive and thrive away from them. We need to allow kids to practice how to contribute and what to contribute. Understanding how to find trust, where it comes from. It is earned with every move they make! The Web is calculating your trustworthiness!

She finished by quoting Seth Godin's new book, Linchpin.
Telling kids: "The world needs your contribution!"

Here are the slides for her presentation: